Editors: Anna Esparcia-Alcázar & Leonardo Trujillo

The two papers contained in this special section give a complementary view on how GP can be hybridized with numerical optimization methods and problems. On the one hand, by enhancing GP with powerful optimization methods to achieve state of the art performance; on the other,  by exploiting the extraordinary flexibility of GP to solve numerical optimization tasks directly with GP.

We hope you enjoy it!

Special issue of the GPEM journal: Integrating numerical optimization methods with genetic programming